Reformulating Strategies to Develop Democratization through Civic Education in Aceh
AbstractThis paper aims to pursue appropriate strategies to shape students’ characters and sense of nationalism through formal education in Aceh. Grounded in the structured interviews, focused group discussions, and observations, this qualitative case study reveals that Aceh, as one province in Indonesia, which was trapped in prolonged army conflict, needs character education that focuses on the nation-state paradigm. The contemporary Acehnese society is also facing new cultural, ethnic, inter-religious conflicts, as well as internal conflicts among Muslims. The seed of these conflicts becomes increasingly worse when infiltrated by the contemporary political interests in the province. During the era of military conflict, Pendidikan Moral Pancasila (Pancasila Moral Education) was deemed “a dangerous” subject to be taught in Aceh schools due to its contradictory nature against the ideology of Gerakan Aceh Merdeka (Free Aceh Movement). Despite downgrading the students’ spirit of nationalism, such situation has gradually been changed since a peace agreement between the two parties, Indonesian government and Gerakan Aceh Merdeka, was achieved in August 2005. Nevertheless, this demonstrates the need to overhaul curriculum and instructional strategies in the pursuit of the democratization in the province.
Argyris, C., and D. Scho¨ n. Theory in Practice: Increasing Professional Effectiveness. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1974.
Asia Report, ICG. “Indonesia Briefing,” May 9, 2013.
Asia Report N°17, ICG. “Aceh: Why Military Force Won’t Bring Lasting Peace,” June 12, 2001.
Bertrand, J. Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Indonesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Burger, D. H., and Prayudi. Sejarah Economic-Sosiologis Indonesia (The socio-economical history of Indonesia). Jakarta: Pradnyamitra, 1962.
Burroughs, Susie, Peggy F. Hopper, Kay Brocato, and Angela Sanders. “Teaching for and about Citizenship in a Democratic Society: Comparative Views of a Selected Civic Educators in the United States, Europe, and Latin America.” International Journal of Social Education 22, no. 2 (2008): 49–69.
Crystal, David S., and Matthew DeBell’s. “Sources of Civic Orientation among American Youth: Trust, Religious Valuation, and Attributions of Responsibility.” Political Psychology 23 (March 2002): 113–132.
van Dijk, C. Rebellion Under the Banner of Islam: The Darul Islam in Indonesia. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1981.
Feener, R. Michael. Sharia and Social Engineering: The Implementation of Islamic Law in Aceh, Indonesia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.
Fieldman, Lauren. “Identifying Best Practices in Civic Education: Lessons from the Student Voices Program.” American Journal of Education (November 2007).
Ismail Jacoeb. Atjeh, 1946.
Kahne, Joseph, Bernadette Chi, and Ellen Middaugh. “Building Social Capital for Civic and Political Engagement: The Potential of High-School Civics Courses.” Canadian Journal of Education 29 (2006): 387–409.
Kalidjernih, F. “Post-Colonial Citizenship Education: A Critical Study of the Production and Reproduction of the Indonesian Civic Ideal.” Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Tasmania, 2005.
Kingsbury, D., and H. Aveling. Autonomy and Disintegration in Indonesia. New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2003.
Reid, Anthony. Witnesses to Sumatra: A Travelers Anthology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Rubin, Beth C. “‘There’s Still Not Justice’: Youth Civic Identity Development Amid Distinct School and Community Contexts.” The College Record 109 (February 2007): 449–481.
Sjamsuddin, Nazaruddin. The Republican Revolt: A Study of the Acehnese Rebellion. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1985.
Srimulyani, Eka, and Sa’eda Buang. “Pendidikan Islami (Islamic Education): Reformulating A New Curriculum for Muslim Schools in Aceh, Indonesia.” In Muslim Education in the 21st Century: Asian Perspectives, edited by Sa’eda Buang and Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew, 90–108. London: Routledge, 2014.
Westheimer, Joel, and Joseph Kahne. “What Kind of Citizen? The Politics of Educating for Democracy.” American Educational Research Journal 41 (2004): 237–269.
Winataputra, U. S. “Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan untuk Perguruan Tinggi: Suatu Kerangka Acuan [Civic education for higher education: A frame of reference]” presented at the Seminar Nasional III Pendidikan Kewargaan (Civic Education) di Perguruan Tinggi [Third National Seminar on Civic Education in Higher Education], Jakarta, Indonesia, October 2003.
“DPR ALA: Pemekaran tak Perlu Rekomendasi,” n.d. Accessed April 13, 2013. http://aceh.tribunnews.com/2013/04/13/ dpr-ala-pemekaran-tak-perlu-rekomendasi.
“Pasang Surut Perjuangan ALA ABAS di Aceh,” n.d. Accessed November 3, 2013. http://atjehpost.com/read/2013/ 03/11/43381/0/39/Pasang-surut-perjuangan-ALA-ABAS-di-Aceh.
“Politisi PA Tak Berani Mundur,” n.d. Accessed March 19, 2017. http://aceh.tribunnews.com/2017/03/19/politisi-pa-tak-berani-mundur.
“Provinsi ALA-ABAS Sudah Final,” n.d. Accessed February 24, 2008. http://www.waspada.co.id/index.php?option=com_ content&view=article&id=12318:provinsi-ala-abas-sudah-final&catid=14:medan&Itemid=27.
“Provinsi ALA dan Abas Dideklarasikan 4 November,” n.d. Accessed February 12, 2005. http://news.detik.com/read/ 2005/12/02/115550/490897/10/provinsi-ala-dan-abas-dideklarasikan-4-november?nd771108bcj.
“Risalah Sejarah Masuk dan Berkembangnya Islam di Daerah Istimewa Aceh.” The symposium on the History of Islamic Entrance and Development in the Special Region Aceh, 1978.
“Risalah Sejarah Masuknya Islam di Indonesia.” The Symposium on the History of Islamic Entrance to Indonesia, 1963.
“Seni dan Budaya Aceh,” n.d. Accessed May 12, 2013. http://2012.acehinvestment.com/Seni-dan-Budaya-Aceh.html.
“Sosial Budaya Provinsi Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam,” n.d. Accessed May 12, 2013. http://www.indonesia.go.id/in/ pemerintah-daerah/provinsi-nanggroe-aceh-darussalam/ sosial-budaya.
“Tunggu Proposal Pembentukan Provinsi ALA dan ABAS,” n.d. Accessed January 3, 2013. http://www.jpnn.com/ read/2013/01/03/152814/Tunggu-Proposal-Pembentukan-Provinsi-ALA-dan-ABAS.
“UUPA Dipakai Saat Terdesak,” n.d. Accessed March 19, 2017. http://aceh.tribunnews.com/2017/03/19/uupa-dipakai-saat-terdesak.
PDF downloaded: 318