Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Understanding the Complexities of Child Marriage and  Promoting Education to Prevent Child Marriage in Indramayu, West Java

English

  • Nina Nurmila Indonesia International Islamic University (UIII)
  • Wiwin Windiana Indonesia International Islamic University (UIII)

Abstract

The problem of child marriage in Indonesia is complex. There are many factors affecting the incidence of child marriage, such as poverty, lack of education, religious belief, social pressure, and limited employment opportunities. This paper aims to understand the complexities of child marriage in Indramayu, West Java. The Indonesian government has tried to eliminate child marriage, such as by amending the Law on the minimum age of marriage from 16 to 19 years old for girls. This paper argues that due to the complex problems of child marriage, eliminating child marriage requires many efforts to address the causes of child marriage, not only by amending the Law. This research is feminist research, which combines knowledge production with activism. It does not merely produce "knowledge what" but also "knowledge for" by encouraging girls to continue their studies to prevent child marriage. The finding shows that most women regretted marrying underage because they were financially unprepared. This implies that child marriage can result in economic insecurity, leading to a cycle of poverty in society.

Keywords: Child Marriage, Education, Feminist Methodology

References

Aarts, Henk, and Ap Dijksterhuis. “The Silence of the Library: Environment, Situational Norm, and Social Behavior.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84, no. 1 (2003): 18–28. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.1.18.

Abdullah, Fuady, Nova Anggraini Putri, and Youssof Salhein. “Revisiting ‘Iddah: A Critical Analysis of Gender Equality in Indonesian Feminist Islamic Legal Discourse.” JURIS (Jurnal Ilmiah Syariah) 22, no. 2 (December 15, 2023): 275–90. https://doi.org/10.31958/juris.v22i2.10320.

Agger, Ben. A Critical Theory of Public Life. Knowledge, Discourse, and Politics in an Age of Decline. UK: The Falmer Press, 1991.

Ahonsi, Babatunde, Kamil Fuseini, Dela Nai, Erika Goldson, Selina Owusu, Ismail Ndifuna, Icilda Humes, and Placide L. Tapsoba. “Child Marriage in Ghana: Evidence from a Multi-Method Study.” BMC Women’s Health 19, no. 1 (November 12, 2019): 126. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-019-0823-1.

Ahyani, Sri. “Pertimbangan Pengadilan Agama Atas Dispensasi Pernikahan Usia Dini Akibat Kehamilan di Luar Nikah.” Jurnal Wawasan Yuridika 34, no. 1 (December 15, 2016): 31. https://doi.org/10.25072/jwy.v34i1.107.

Alfa, Fathur Rahman. “Pernikahan Dini dan Perceraian di Indonesia.” Jurnal Ilmiah Ahwal Syakhshiyyah (JAS) 1, no. 1 (2019): 49. https://doi.org/10.33474/jas.v1i1.2740.

Axelrod, Robert. “An Evolutionary Approach to Norms.” American Political Science Review 80, no. 4 (December 1, 1986): 1095–1111. https://doi.org/10.2307/1960858.

Blossfeld, Hans-Peter, and Ursula Jaenichen. “Educational Expansion and Changes in Women’s Entry into Marriage and Motherhood in the Federal Republic of Germany.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 54, no. 2 (May 1992): 302. https://doi.org/10.2307/353062.

BPS Kabupaten Indramayu. “Indramayu Dalam Angka Tahun 2021.” Website Kabupaten Indramayu (blog), 2021. https://indramayukab.go.id/download/indramayu-dalam-angka-tahun-2021/.

Cislaghi, Beniamino, Paul Nkwi, Gerry Mackie, and Holly Shakya. “Why Context Matters for Social Norms Interventions: The Case of Child Marriage in Cameroon.” Global Public Health 15, no. 4 (April 2, 2020): 532–43. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2019.1704818.

Faiz, Muhammad Fauzinudin, Zezen Zainul Ali, and Muhammad Taufiq. “Underage Widows and Widowers before the Law: Problem, Contestation and Legal Certainty in Marriage Dispensation.” JURIS (Jurnal Ilmiah Syariah) 22, no. 2 (December 15, 2023): 223–34. https://doi.org/10.31958/juris.v22i2.9097.

Faridl, Miftah. Poligami: Catatan Pengalaman dan Interpretasi Ajaran. Bandung: Pustaka, 2007.

Feyissa, Garumma Tolu, Lemi Belay Tolu, Matiwos Soboka, and Alex Ezeh. “Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Child Marriage and Teen Pregnancy in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review of Quantitative Evidence.” Frontiers in Reproductive Health 5 (2023): 1105390. https://doi.org/10.3389/frph.2023.1105390.

Gorelick, Sherry. “Contradictions of Feminist Methodology.” Gender & Society 5, no. 4 (December 1991): 459–77. https://doi.org/10.1177/089124391005004002.

Grijns, Mies, and Hoko Horii. “Child Marriage in a Village in West Java (Indonesia): Compromises between Legal Obligations and Religious Concerns.” Asian Journal of Law and Society 5, no. 2 (November 2018): 453–66. https://doi.org/10.1017/als.2018.9.

Hamid, Asrul, Raja Ritonga, and Khairul Bahri Nasution. “Penguatan Pemahaman Terhadap Dampak Pernikahan Dini.” MONSU’ANI TANO Jurnal Pengabdian Masyarakat 5, no. 1 (2022): 44. https://doi.org/10.32529/tano.v5i1.1543.

Hanafi, Yusuf. “Kontroversi Usia Kawin Aisyah Ra dan Kaitannya dengan Legalitas Perkawinan Anak di Bawah Umur dalam Islam.” Istinbath: Jurnal Hukum Islam IAIN Mataram 15, no. 2 (December 2016): 296–319. https://www.neliti.com/id/publications/70424/.

Hassfurter, Karoline. “The Power of Education to End Child Marriage.” UNICEF DATA, September 19, 2022. https://data.unicef.org/resources/child-marriage-and-education-data-brief/.

Huberman, A., and Matthew Miles. The Qualitative Researcher’s Companion. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks California 91320 United States of America: SAGE Publications, Inc., 2002. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412986274.

Irwan M Hidayana, Ida Ruwaida, Devi Benedicta, Hestu Prahara, Fatimah Az Zahro, Reni Kartikawati, Fadlia Hana, S Sos Pebriansyah, and Maryse C Kok. “Factors Influencing Child Marriage, Teenage Pregnancy and Female Genital Mutilation/Circumcision in Lombok Barat and Sukabumi Districts, Indonesia,” 2016. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.28878.92480.

Iswinarno, Chandra. “Gegara Aturan Baru, Pernikahan Dini di Indramayu Tahun 2020 Melonjak Tajam.” Suarajabar.id, January 18, 2021. https://jabar.suara.com/read/2021/01/18/173252/gegara-aturan-baru-pernikahan-dini-di-indramayu-tahun-2020-melonjak-tajam.

Iustitiani, Nilla S. D., and Clara R. P. Ajisuksmo. “Supporting Factors and Consequences of Child Marriage.” ANIMA Indonesian Psychological Journal 33, no. 2 (January 25, 2018): 100–111. https://doi.org/10.24123/aipj.v33i2.1581.

Kamaruddin, Kamaruddin. “The Early Marriage of the Tolaki Konawe Community in the Perspective of Critical Islamic Law.” Ijtihad : Jurnal Wacana Hukum Islam Dan Kemanusiaan 22, no. 2 (December 20, 2022): 255–70. https://doi.org/10.18326/ijtihad.v22i2.255-270.

Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor HK.02.02/Menkes/73/2015 Tentang Pedoman Nasional Pelayanan Kedokteran Jiwa (2015). http://hukor.kemkes.go.id/uploads/produk_hukum/KMK_No._HK_.02_.02-MENKES-73-2015_ttg_Pedoman_Nasional_Pelayanan_Kedokteran_Jiwa_.pdf.

Lapinski, Maria Knight, and Rajiv N. Rimal. “An Explication of Social Norms.” Communication Theory 15, no. 2 (May 2005): 127–47. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2005.tb00329.x.

Lathifah, Anthin, Briliyan Ernawati, and Anwar Masduki. “Problems with the Islamic Legal System Regarding Child Marriages in Indonesia during the Covid-19 Pandemic Period.” Ijtihad : Jurnal Wacana Hukum Islam Dan Kemanusiaan 22, no. 2 (December 2, 2022): 155–76. https://doi.org/10.18326/ijtihad.v22i2.155-176.

Lubis, Juliana. “Pengaruh Pendidikan Orang Tua Terhadap Orang Tua Menikahkan Anak Pada Usia Muda Di Desa Bangun Rejo Kecamatan Tanjung Morawa.” Jurnal Maternitas Kebidanan 5, no. 1 (2022): 34–39. https://doi.org/10.34012/jumkep.v5i1.979.

Malhotra, A., Warner, A., McGonagle, A., and Lee-Rife, S. “Solutions to End Child Marriage.” International Center for Research on Women, 2011. https://www.icrw.org/publications/solutions-to-end-child-marriage-2/.

Mead, Erin L., Rajiv N. Rimal, Roberta Ferrence, and Joanna E. Cohen. “Understanding the Sources of Normative Influence on Behavior: The Example of Tobacco.” Social Science & Medicine 115 (August 2014): 139–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.05.030.

Moleong, Lexi J. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung, Indonesia: Remaja Rosda Karya, 2002.

Mueller, Trisha E., Lorrie E. Gavin, and Aniket Kulkarni. “The Association Between Sex Education and Youth’s Engagement in Sexual Intercourse, Age at First Intercourse, and Birth Control Use at First Sex.” Journal of Adolescent Health 42, no. 1 (January 2008): 89–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.08.002.

Nawawi, M. Anwar, Sulastri Sulastri, Relit Nur Edi, and Agus Setiawan. “Harmonization of Islam and Human Rights: Judges’ Legal Arguments in Rejecting Child Marriage Dispensation in Sukadana, Indonesia.” Ijtihad : Jurnal Wacana Hukum Islam Dan Kemanusiaan 22, no. 1 (September 1, 2022): 117–34. https://doi.org/10.18326/ijtihad.v22i1.117-134.

Nisa, Fadillatul, and Rini Marlena. “Fenomena Pengantin Muda: Menelusuri Praktik Pernikahan dan Poligami Pada Pasangan di Bawah Umur.” AGENDA: Jurnal Analisis Gender dan Agama 1, no. 1 (2017): 99–106. https://doi.org/10.31958/agenda.v1i1.942.

Nour, Nawal. “Health Consequences of Child Marriage in Africa.” Emerging Infectious Diseases 12, no. 11 (2006): 1644–49. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1211.060510.

Parsons, Jennifer, Jeffrey Edmeades, Aslihan Kes, Suzanne Petroni, Maggie Sexton, and Quentin Wodon. “Economic Impacts of Child Marriage: A Review of the Literature.” The Review of Faith & International Affairs 13, no. 3 (July 3, 2015): 12–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/15570274.2015.1075757.

Paul, Pintu. “Effects of Education and Poverty on the Prevalence of Girl Child Marriage in India: A District–Level Analysis.” Children and Youth Services Review 100 (2019): 16–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2019.02.033.

Peraturan Pemerintah (PP) Nomor 74 Tahun 2008 tentang Guru. Accessed February 19, 2024. http://peraturan.bpk.go.id/Details/4892/pp-no-74-tahun-2008.

Prihandini, Shandra Riestya, Wahyu Pujiastuti, and Tulus Puji Hastuti. “Usia Reproduksi Tidak Sehat dan Jarak Kehamilan Yang Terlalu Dekat Meningkatkan Kejadian Abortus di Rumah Sakit Tentara Dokter Soedjono Magelang.” Jurnal Kebidanan 5, no. 10 (2016): 47–57. https://doi.org/10.31983/jkb.v5i10.1147.

Rahman, Handhika. “Awal 2023 Pengajuan Dispensasi Nikah Di Indramayu Masih Tinggi, Rata-Rata Karena Hamil Di Luar Nikah.” Tribunjabar.id, May 2, 2023. https://jabar.tribunnews.com/2023/05/02/awal-2023-pengajuan-dispensasi-nikah-di-indramayu-masih-tinggi-rata-rata-karena-hamil-di-luar-nikah.

Rahman, Handhika, and Hermawan Aksan. “Ratusan Anak di Bawah 19 Tahun di Indramayu Ajukan Dispensasi Nikah Dini, Ketua DPRD Angkat Bicara.” Tribunjabar.id, January 19, 2023. https://jabar.tribunnews.com/2023/01/19/ratusan-anak-di-bawah-19-tahun-di-indramayu-ajukan-dispensasi-nikah-dini-ketua-dprd-angkat-bicara.

———. “Tekan Tingginya Dispensasi Nikah Anak, DPRD Indramayu Buat Perda Ketahanan Keluarga.” KOMPAS.com, January 21, 2023. https://bandung.kompas.com/read/2023/01/21/141005778/tekan-tingginya-dispensasi-nikah-anak-dprd-indramayu-buat-perda-ketahanan.

Romdhon, Muhammad Syahri, and David Oliver Purba. “572 Anak di Indramayu Ajukan Dispensasi Nikah, Sebagian Besar Hamil Duluan.” KOMPAS.com, January 17, 2023. https://bandung.kompas.com/read/2023/01/17/185523478/572-anak-di-indramayu-ajukan-dispensasi-nikah-sebagian-besar-hamil-duluan.

Sarantakos, Sotirius. Social Research. Brisbane: MacMillan Education Australia, 1993.

Sekarayu, Shafa Yuandina, and Nunung Nurwati. “Dampak Pernikahan Usia Dini terhadap Kesehatan Reproduksi.” Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat (JPPM) 2, no. 1 (2021): 37. https://doi.org/10.24198/jppm.v2i1.33436.

Stanley, Liz, ed. Feminist Praxis (RLE Feminist Theory): Research, Theory and Epistemology in Feminist Sociology. 0 ed. Routledge, 2013. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203094020.

Subeitan, Syahrul Mubarak. “Forced Marriage: Implementation of the Mandatory Provisions of the Bride’s Consent in Indonesia.” JURIS (Jurnal Ilmiah Syariah) 21, no. 1 (June 10, 2022): 77–87. https://doi.org/10.31958/juris.v21i1.5581.

Tampubolon, Elisabeth Putri Lahitani. “Permasalahan Perkawinan Dini di Indonesia.” Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Sains 2, no. 5 (2021): 738–46. https://doi.org/10.36418/jiss.v2i5.279.

Theme, Destroyer. “Al-Mausu’ah al-Fiqiyah al-Kuwaitiyah.” Kitab Salaf (blog), 1980. https://www.kitabsalaf.id/2016/03/al-mausu-al-fiqiyah-al-kuwaitiyah.html.

Undang-undang (UU) Nomor 1 Tahun 1974 tentang Perkawinan. Accessed February 19, 2024. http://peraturan.bpk.go.id/Details/47406/uu-no-1-tahun-1974.

Undang-undang (UU) Nomor 16 Tahun 2019 tentang Perubahan atas Undang-undang Nomor 1 Tahun 1974 tentang Perkawinan. Accessed February 19, 2024. http://peraturan.bpk.go.id/Details/122740/uu-no-16-tahun-2019.

UNICEF. “Evidence Review: Child Marriage Interventions and Research from 2020 to 2022.” UNICEF, 2023. https://www.unicef.org/documents/evidence-review-child-marriage-interventions-and-research-2020-2022.

United Nations. “International Conference on Population and Development 5-13 September 1994, Cairo, Egypt.” United Nations. United Nations, 1994. https://www.un.org/en/conferences/population/cairo1994.

Wahi, Aditi, Kristen L. Zaleski, Jacob Lampe, Patricia Bevan, and Alissa Koski. “The Lived Experience of Child Marriage in the United States.” Social Work in Public Health 34, no. 3 (April 3, 2019): 201–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/19371918.2019.1575312.

Warastuti, Diah, Yulia Herawati, and Evi Kurniasih. “Kejadian Pernikahan Usia Dini di Indramayu Tahun 2020.” Jurnal Kesehatan dan Kebidanan (Journal of Health and Midwifery) 10, no. 2 (2021): 1–11. https://smrh.e-journal.id/Jkk/article/view/142.

Yanti, Yanti, Hamidah Hamidah, and Wiwita Wiwita. “Analisis Faktor Penyebab Dan Dampak Pernikahan Dini Di Kecamatan Kandis Kabupaten Siak.” JURNAL IBU DAN ANAK 6, no. 2 (2018): 96–103. https://doi.org/10.36929/jia.v6i2.94.

Yaya, Sanni, Emmanuel Kolawole Odusina, and Ghose Bishwajit. “Prevalence of Child Marriage and Its Impact on Fertility Outcomes in 34 Sub-Saharan African Countries.” BMC International Health and Human Rights 19, no. 1 (December 2019): 33. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12914-019-0219-1.

Yumarni, Ani, and Endeh Suhartini. “Perkawinan Bawah Umur dan Potensi Perceraian (Studi Kewenangan KUA Wilayah Kota Bogor).” Jurnal Hukum IUS QUIA IUSTUM 26, no. 1 (2019): 193–211. https://doi.org/10.20885/iustum.vol26.iss1.art10.

Article Metrics
Abstract viewed: 261
Fulltext PDF downloaded: 347
Published
2023-12-31
How to Cite
Nurmila, N., & Windiana, W. (2023). Understanding the Complexities of Child Marriage and  Promoting Education to Prevent Child Marriage in Indramayu, West Java. Ulumuna, 27(2), 823-853. https://doi.org/10.20414/ujis.v27i2.680
Section
Articles