Moro Muslims In Southern Phillippines: The Rise of Abu Sayyaf and the Genealogy of Conflict In Southeast Asia
The main problem of Moro Muslims in Southern Philippines are now the right to self-determination but it also include poverty, underdevelopment, low education, unemployment, discrimination, and violent conflict. Upon the Spanish colonization for more than three centuries (1521-1898), the Moros were controlled by the United States for almost five decades (1898-1942). Japan colonised them for three years before they were integrated to the Republic of Philippines in 1946. Their struggle for independence still continues today represented by the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), establihsed in the late 1960s and led by Nur Misuari, and by the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) led by Salamat Hasyim in 1981. The birth of the MILF was a response to dissatisfaction with the MNLF that was considered less assertive in fighting for Bangsamoro's rights and too accommodative to the Philippine government. In early 1990s, Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) led by Abdulrajak Janjalani emerged to respond the situation. In later development, it rises to become a prominent group involved in a long-standing conflict and terror in this landmark of Southeast Asia region.
Abuza, Zachary. Balik-Terrorism : The Return of the Abu Sayyaf. Strategic Studies Institute, 2005. Accessed April 13, 2014. http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub625.pdf.
Ahmad, Aijaz. “Class and Colony in Mindanao.” Southeast Asia Chronicle 1982, no. 82 (n.d.): 4–11.
Arnold, James R. The Moro War: How America Battled a Muslim Insurgency in the Philippine Jungle, 1902-1913. Bloomsbury Press, 2011.
Atkinson, Garrett. “Abu Sayyaf: The Father of the Swordsman A Review of the Rise of Islamic Insurgency in the Southern Philippines”.” Perspective Journal of American Security Project, no. March 2012 (March 2012): 1–8. Accessed April 13, 2014. https://www.americansecurityproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Abu-Sayyaf-The-Father-of-the-Swordsman.pdf.
Banlaoi, Rommel C. Al Harakatul Al Islamiyah: Essays on the Abu Sayyaf Group. Quezon City: Philippine Institute for Peace, Violence and Terrorism Research, 2008.
BBC. “Bloody End to Manila Jail Break.” BBC Newa Online. Last modified March 15, 2005. Accessed April 14, 2014. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4349471.stm.
Burley, T. M. The Philippines: An Economic and Social Geography. London: G. Bell and Sons Ltd, 1973.
Costello, Michael A. “The Demography of Mindanao.” In Mindanao: Land of Unfulfilled Promise, edited by Mark Turner, R.J. May, and Lulu Respall Turner. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers, 1992.
Ferrer, Miriam Coronel, ed. The SPCPD (Southern Philippines Council for Peace and Development): A Response to the Controversy. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Center for Integrative and Development Studies, 1997.
France-Presse, Agence. “Abu Sayyaf Extremists Battle Troops in Philippines, Leaving 20 Soldiers Injured.” The Guardian, April 11, 2014, sec. World news. Accessed April 13, 2014. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/11/abu-sayyaf-extremists-battle-troops-philippines.
Gunaratna, Rohan. Terrorism In Southeast Asia: Threat and Response. Series II (Islamism in Southeast Asia) 1. Singapore: Hudson Institute, Center For Eurasian Policy Occasional Research Paper, 2006. https://www.hudson.org/content/researchattachments/attachment/518/gunaratnaterrorismsoutheastasia.pdf.
International Crisis Group. Reports, 2008.
Pareño, Roel. “Abu Sayyaf Abducts School Principal in Sumisip.” Philstar.com. Last modified March 31, 2014. Accessed April 15, 2014. https://www.philstar.com/nation/2014/03/31/1307219/updated-abu-sayyaf-abducts-school-principal-sumisip.
Santos, Soliman M., Paz Verdades M. Santos, Octavio A. Dinampo, Herman Joseph S. Kraft, Artha Kira R. Paredes, and Raymund Jose G. Quilop. “Al- Harakatul Al-Islamiyya, Aka Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG).” In Primed And Purposeful Armed Groups And Human Security Efforts In The Philippines, edited by Diana Rodriguez, 364–379. South-South Network for Non-State Armed Group Engagement and the Small Arms Survey, 2010. Accessed April 13, 2014. http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital Library/Publications/Detail/?ots591=0c54e3b3-1e9c-be1e-2c24- a6a8c7060233&lng=en&id=115743.
Wee, Darwin T. “Abu Sayyaf Actively Recruiting Young Blood - Police.” GMA News Online. Last modified June 17, 2008. Accessed April 14, 2014. https://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/101477/news/regions/abu-sayyaf-actively-recruiting-young-blood-police/.
Wibisono, Adhe Nuansa. “ASEAN dan Institusi Kontra Terorisme di Asia Tenggara.” Paper presented at the Kajian Terorisme dan Keamanan Internasional UI, December 24, 2013.
Zambo Times News Online. “What a New ASG Leader Could Bring.” Accessed April 17, 2014. http://www.zambotimes.com/archives/news/7142-What.
Fulltext PDF downloaded: 12
Copyright (c) 2018 Ulumuna
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.