Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Social Resilience of Minority Group: Study on Syiah Refugees in Sidoarjo and Ahmadiyah Refugees in Mataram

  • Cahyo Pamungkas Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Puslit Sumberdaya Regional LIPI Indonesia

Abstract

This research conceptually aims to find out the strategy the Shia community in Sidoarjo, East Java, and Ahmadiyya community in Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara, have employed to defend themselves from the pressure of the state and Sunni Muslim as majority group due to the differences in textual interpretation toward Islamic Holy Scriptures (The Qur’an). The theoretical implication from this study is to evaluate and criticize social resilience concept which refers to developmentalistic perspectives such as the use of social capital. In this article, social resilience is closely related to strategy of minorities to establish a tolerant multi religious community. This study argues that social resilience of religious minority groups, i.e. Shia in Sidoarjo and Ahmadiyya in Mataram, is formed by various aspects, such as the government policies on religious life, history of group formation, social relations and network, understanding towards religious values and spirituality, and cultural bonds in the community.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20414/ujis.v19i2.418

Keywords: Religion, Social Resilience, Refugees, Religious Minority, Community Strategy

References

Adger, W. Neil. “Social and Ecological Resilience: are They Related?,” Progress in Human Geography 24, no. 3 (2000): 347-364.

Adger, W. Neil., T. Hughes, C. Folke, S. R. Carpenter, and J. Rockström. “Social-Ecological Resilience to Coastal Disasters.” Science 309 (2005): 1036–1039.

Afdillah, Muhammad. “Dari Masjid ke Panggung Politik: Studi Kasus Peran Pemuka Agama dan Politisi dalam Konflik Kekerasan Agama antar Komunitas Sunni dah Syia di Sampang Jawa Timur.” Master thesis, on Sekolah Pascasarjana Program Studi Agama dan Lintas Budaya, Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta, 2013.

Agamben, Giorgio. Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life. California: Stanford University Press, 1998.

Bourdieu, Pierre. Outline of A Theory of Practice, translated by Richard Nice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977.

------------. The Logic of Practice, translated by Richard Nice. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1990.

------------. Language and Symbolic Power. The 5th Edition, edited by John B. Thompson and translated by Gino Raymond and Matthew Adamson. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991.

Bourdeu, Pierre and Loic J. D. Wacquant. An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology. Chicago: University of Chichago Press, 1992.

Budiwanti, Erni. “Jama’ah Ahmadiyya and the Indonesian Ulema Edicts.” Strategic Review 1, no. 2 (2011): 36-43.

------------. “Jemaat Ahmadiyya dan Resistensi Sosial di Lombok.” Harmoni 6, no. 23 (Juli-September 2007): 36-61.

------------. “Pluralism Collapses: A Study on the Jama’ahAhmadiyya Indonesia and Its Persecution.” Working Paper Series. No. 117. National University Singapore: Asia Research Institute, 2009.

Burhani, A. Najib. “When Muslims are not Muslims: The Ahmadiyya Community and the Discourse on Heresy in Indonesia.” Ph.D. diss. University of California, Santa Barbara, 2013.

------------. “Conversion to the Ahmadiyya in Indonesia: Winning Hearts through Ethical and Spiritual Appeals.” Sojourn 29, no. 3 (November 2014): 57-690.

------------. “Treating Minorities with Fatwas: A Study of the Ahmadiyya Community in Indonesia.” Contemporary Islam 8, no. 3 (September 2014): 285-301.

Durkheim, Emile. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. New York: The Free Press, 1965.

Farabi, Nadia. “Hambatan Pemulangan Pengungsi Internal Syia Sampang dan Ahmadiyya Lombok.” Master thesis Program Pascasarjana Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Politik, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, 2014.

Fawcett, Stephen B., Adrienne Paine-Andrews, Vincent T. Francisco, Jerry A. Schultz, Kimber P. Richter, Rhonda K. Lewis, Ella L. Williams. “Using Empowerment Theory in Collaborative Partnerships for Community Health and Development.” American Journal of Community Psychology 23, no. 5 (1995): 677-697.

Formichi, Chiara. “Violence, Sectarianism, and the Politics of Religion: Articulations of Anti-Shi'a Discourses in Indonesia.” Indonesia 98 (October 2014): 1-27.

Gunnestad, Arve. “Resilience – a New Approach to Children at Risk in the Southern African Situation”. In Children’s Rights in Early Childhood Education in Africa and Norway. Edited by A. Gunnestad, 45-59. Trondheim: Network for Preschool Teacher Training and Preschool Development in Southern Africa, 2003.

------------. “Resilience in a Cross-Cultural Perspective: How Resilience is generated in Different Cultures.” Journal of Intercultural Communication 11, (2006): 1-29.

Hasyim, Syafiq. "MajelisUlama Indonesia and pluralism in Indonesia.” Philosophy & Social Criticism 41, no.4-5 (2015): 487-495.

Humaedi, Ali. “Kerusuhan Sampang: Kontestasi Aliran Keagamaan dalam Wajah Kebudayaan Madura.” Harmoni 13, no. 2 (May – August 2014): 117-133.

Keck, Markus, and Patrick Sakdapolrak. "What is Social Resilience? Lessons Learned and Ways Forward." Erdkunde 67, no. 1 (2013): 5-19.

Kirmayer, Laurence J. MeghaSehdev, Rob Whitley, Stéphane F. Dandeneau, Colette Isaac. "Community Resilience: Models, Metaphors and Measures." Journal of Aboriginal Health (November 2009): 62-117.

Kontras Surabaya. Laporan Investigasi dan Pemantauan Kasus Syia Sampang. Surabaya: Kontras, 2012.

Krustiyati, Atik. “Kebijakan Penanganan Pengungsi di Indonesia: Kajian dari Konvensi Pengungsi tahun 1951 dan Protokol 1967.” Law Review 12, no. 2 (November 2012): 171-192.

Mayunga, Joseph S. “Understanding and Applying the Concept of Community Disaster Resilience: a Capital-based Approach.” 22–28 Working Paper. Munich: Summer Academy for Social Vulnerability and Resilience Building, Munich, (July 2007): 1-16.

Magis, Kristen. “Community Resilience: An Indicator of Social Sustainability.” Society & Natural Resources 23, no. 5 (2010): 401- 416.

Mahmood, Saba. Politics of Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Subject. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2005.

McKnight, John, and John Kretzmann. Building Communities from the Inside out: A Path toward Finding and Mobilizing a Community’s Assets. Evanston, IL: Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research, Northwestern University, 1993.

Mignone, Javier, and John O'Neil. “Social Capital and Youth Suicide Risk Factors in First Nations communities.” Canadian Journal of Public Health 96 (Jan-Feb 2005): S51-4.

Mudzakkir, Amin. “Minoritisasi Ahmadiyya di Indonesia.” Masyarakat Indonesia 37, no. 2, (2011): 1- 25.

------------. “Menjadi Minoritas di Tengah Perubahan: Dinamika Komunitas Ahmadiyya di Ciparay.” In Hak Minoritas, Multikulturalisme, dan Dilema Negara Bangsa. Edited by Mashudi Noorsalim, M. Nurkhiron, Ridwan al-Makassary, 195-235. Jakarta: Interseksi, 2007).

------------. “Limbo Kewarganegaraan dan Kemungkinan Rekonsiliasi Kultural.” In Ketahanan Sosial Kelompok Minoritas Agama: Studi Pengungsi dan Relokasi Komunitas Ahmadiyya di Mataram dan Komunitas Syia di Sidoarjo, edited by Cahyo Pamungkas, 113-130. Jakarta: LIPI, 2015.

Obrist, Brigit, Constanze Pfeiffer, and Robert Henley. “Multi-Layered Social Resilience: A New Approach in Mitigation Research.” Progress in Development Studies 10, no. 4 (2010): 283–293.

Sonn, Christopher C., and Adrian T. Fisher. “Sense of Community: Community Resilient Responses to Oppression and Change.” Journal of Community Psychology 26, (1998): 457–472.

UNHCR. Convention and Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees. Geneva: Communication and Public Communication Service, 2010.
Article Metrics
Abstract viewed: 81
PDF downloaded: 56
Published
2015-12-07
How to Cite
Pamungkas, C. (2015). Social Resilience of Minority Group: Study on Syiah Refugees in Sidoarjo and Ahmadiyah Refugees in Mataram. Ulumuna, 19(2), 251-278. https://doi.org/10.20414/ujis.v19i2.418
Section
Articles