Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

To be Excellent Society: Comparative Analysis between Western and Muslim Philosophers

  • Humaidi Hum AS The Islamic Philosophy College (STFI) Sadra


The western philosophers like Karl Marx believe that society is ontologically understood in terms of physical dimension only while the Muslim philosophers such as al-Fārābī, Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī, Ibn Khaldūn and Murtaḍā Muṭahharī argue that it consists of physical and metaphysical or spiritual aspects. The structure of a society along with its development and orientation can be seen and explained by its physical and metaphysical aspects. Moreover, the perfection of a society is not only based on the fulfilment of its physical needs but also on the establishment of intellectual and spiritual needs. This article aims to discuss society through Islamic philosophy’s perspective with the elaboration of social science, the reality of a society, the structure of an ideal society and its development and orientation.


Keywords: Nomadic and Civilized society, Happiness, Proletariat, Bourgeoisie, Materialism


Arendt, Hannah. “Karl Marx and the Tradition of Western Political Thought.” Social Research 69, no. 2 (Summer 2002); 273-319.

Lovejoy, Arthur O. The Great Chain Of Being: A Study of the History of Idea. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001.

Capra, Fritjof. The Hidden Connection: Strategi Sistemik Melawan Kapitalisme Baru. Translated by Andya Primanda. Yogyakarta: Jalasutra, 2009.

Connoly, Peter. Aneka Pendekatan Studi Agama. Translated by Imam Khoiri. Yogyakarta: LKiS, 2002.

Coyle, Sean. From Positivism to Idealism: A Study of the Moral Dimension of Legality. Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2007.

El Bilad, Cecep Zakarias. “Problem Eksistensi Negara dalam Hubungan Internasional: Perspektif Mulla Sadra.” MA Thesis, The Islamic College for Advanced Studies [ICAS]-Universitas Paramadina, 2015.

Fakhry, Majid. A History of Islamic Philosophy (2nd Edition). New York: Columbia University Press, 1983.

Al-Fārābī. “Kitāb al-Siyāsah al-Madaniyyah.” In Rasā’il al-Fārābī. Haydarabad: Majlis Da’irah al-Ma‘arif al-Uthmaniyyah, 1926

-------. Kitāb Tahsil al-Sa‘ādah. Beirut: Dār wa Maktabah al-Hilal, 1981.

-------. Mabādi’ Ārāʾ Ahl al-Madīnah al-Faḍīlah: A Revised Text with Introduction, Translition, and Commentary by Richard Walzer. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985.

Ibn Khaldūn. The Muqaddimah. Translated by Franz Rosenthal. Princetion: Princeton University Press, 1969.

Ibn Sīnā. al-Isharat wa al-Tanbihat. Qum: Bustan Kitāb, 1423 HQ.

-------. al-Shifa: aI-Ilahayyat vol. 1. Qum: Dhawil Qurba: 1430 H

-------. Kitāb al-Najah. Beirut: Dar al-Afaq al-Jadidah, 1985.

Johnson, Doyle P. Teori Sosiologi Klasik dan Modern. Translated by Robert M. Z. Lawang. Jakarta: PT Gramedia, 1986.

Jonmarie, Diana. “The Loss of the Philosophic tradition and the Rise of the Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte”. PhD diss., University of Nevada Reno, 2015.

Leaman, Oliver. An Introduction to Classical Islamic Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Low, Jacqueline. “Structure, Agency, and Social Reality in Blumerian Symbolic Interactionism: The Influence of Georg Simmel.” Symbolic Interaction 31, Issue 3 (July 2008): 325-343.

Lubis, Akhyar Yusuf. Filsafat Ilmu dan Metodologi Posmodernis. Bogor: AkaDemiA, 2004.

Mahdi, Muhsin. Ibn Khaldūn’s Philosophy of History: Study in the Philosophic Foundation of the Science of Culture. Petaling Jaya Selangor: The Other Press Sdn Bhd, 2006.

Maina, Wilson Moha. “Understanding Social Order in the Religion of Islam: A comparative Analysis.” Journal for the Study of Religion and Ideologies 14, issue 40 (Spring 2015): 168-183.

Maslow, Abraham. Motivation and Personality. Harper & Row, Publisher, Inc, 1954.

Mutahharī, Murtadha. Masyarakat dan Sejarah: Pandangan Dunia Islam tentang Hakikat Individu dan Masyarakat dalam Gerakan Sosial Berbasis Agama. Translated by Arif Mulyadi. Yogyakarta: RausanFikr Institute, 2012.

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. History of Islamic Philosophy (Part I). Qum: Ansariyan Publications: 2001.

O’Brien, John Conway. “The Good Society: The Illuminated, Karl Marx and Adam Smith.” International Journal of Social Economics 30, issue 5 (2003): 598-612.

Okasha, Samir. Philosophy of Science: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Rohani, Farhad. Changing the World: Durkheim and Marx on ideal Society. Oklahoma, University of Oklahoma, 1993.

al-Ṣafā, Ikhwān. Rasā’il Ikhwān al-Ṣafā (Vol. 4). Qum: Maktab al-A‘lām al-Islāmī, 1405 HQ.

S. Lambton, Ann K. State and Government in Medieval Islam: An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Political Theory, the Jurists. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.

al-Tūsī, Nasīr al-Dīn. Nasirean Ethics, translated by G. M. Wickens. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd, 1964.
Article Metrics
Abstract viewed: 178
PDF downloaded: 143
How to Cite
AS, H. (2016). To be Excellent Society: Comparative Analysis between Western and Muslim Philosophers. Ulumuna, 20(1), 147-176.