Contemplative and Transformative Learning for Character Development in Islamic Higher Education
Islamic higher education is supposed to develop Indonesians' characters due to its focus on teaching Islam. Moreover, the number of Islamic higher education institutions is vast, reaching 777. Indeed, their contribution to the character development of Indonesians may be significant. However, occurring religious-based prejudices and conflicts, as well as a high index of corruption, show the paradoxes and challenges of Islamic higher education. Although there has been no research demonstrating a statistically significant correlation between Islamic teaching and crime rate or moral issues, educators in Islamic higher education institutions should reflect on what should be done to enhance their leverage on character education. In this paper, two concepts of contemplative learning and transformative learning are discussed to find feasible ways of teaching Islam in the challenging contemporary world. Contemplative and transformative learning in character development requires educators to implement mindfulness and connectedness through integrating all entities of learners' cognition, emotion, intuition, and body, interrelating multi-disciplines, and connecting learning to the real world.
Clark, Ian. “Formative Assessment: Assessment Is for Self-Regulated Learning.” Educational Psychology Review 24, no. 2 (June 1, 2012): 205–249. Accessed April 21, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-011-9191-6.
Cranton, Patricia. Understanding and Promoting Transformative Learning: A Guide for Educators of Adult. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006.
Denton-Borhaug, Kelly, and Daniel Jasper. “Memoir as Contemplative Practice for Peace and Justice.” International Journal of Critical Pedagogy 5, no. 2 (2014): 144–130. Accessed March 30, 2019. http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.libproxy.albany. edu/.
Dewey, John. The School and The Society. Chicago: The University Press of Chicago, 1969.
Egan, Kieran. Learning in Depth: A Simple Innovation That Can Transform Schooling. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 2010.
Eka. “Revisiting Character Education from Islamic Perspective: A Quest for Character-Based Education in Indonesia.” Ulumuna 21, no. 1 (October 27, 2017): 1–33. Accessed January 8, 2020. https://ulumuna.or.id/index.php/ujis/article/view/2.
Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. London: Penguin Books, 1966.
Gemari. UGM Lakukan KKN Tematik Sudah 5 Tahun, 2009. Accessed March 30, 2019. http://www.gemari.or.id/20file/edisi102/ gemari10214.pdf.
Gunnlaugson, Olen, Edward W. Sarath, Charles Scott, and Heeson Bai. Contemplative Learning and Inquiry Across Disciplines. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2014.
Hart, Tobin. From Information to Transformation: Education for The Evolution of Consciousness. New York: Peter Lang, 2001.
Indonesian Statistics. “Jumlah Tindak Pidana Menurut Kepolisian Daerah, 2010-2011.” Last modified 2012. Accessed March 30, 2019. http://www.bps.go.id/tab_sub/view.php?tabel=1&daftar =1&id_subyek=34¬ab=1.
Kabat-Zinn, Jon. “Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Context: Past, Present, and Future.” Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 10, no. 2 (2019): 144–156. Accessed March 30, 2019. http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.libproxy.albany.edu/.
Kahane, David. “Learning about Obligation, Compassion, and Global Justice: The Place of Contemplative Pedagogy.” In Contemplative Learning and Inquiry Across Disciplines, edited by Olen Gunnlaugson, Edward W. Sarath, Charles Scott, and Heeson Bai, 119–132. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2014.
Kaszniak, Alfred W. “Contemplative Pedagogy: Perspective from Cognitive and Affective Science.” In Contemplative Learning and Inquiry Across Disciplines, edited by Olen Gunnlaugson, Edward W. Sarath, Charles Scott, and Heeson Bai, 197–211. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2014.
Komnas Perempuan. “Korban Bersuara, Data Bicara: Sahkan RUU Penghapusan Kekerasan Seksual Sebagai Wujud Komitmen Negara.” Last modified May 12, 2019. Accessed March 13, 2019. https://www.komnasperempuan.go.id/read-news-catatan-tahunan-kekerasan-terhadap-perempuan-2019.
McWhinney, W., and L. Markos. “Transformative Education: Across The Threshold.” Journal of Transformative Education 1, no. 1 (2003): 16–37. Accessed March 30, 2019. http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.libproxy.albany.edu/.
Mezirow, Jack. Learning as Transformation: Critical Perspectives on A Theory in Progress. New York: Jossey-Bass, 2000.
Miller, John P. “Contemplation: The Soul’s Way of Knowing.” In Contemplative Learning and Inquiry Across Disciplines, edited by Olen Gunnlaugson, Edward W. Sarath, Charles Scott, and Heeson Bai, 69–80. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2014.
———. Education for Wisdom and Compassion. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press, 2006.
Newman, Michael. “Calling Transformative Learning Into Question: Some Mutinous Thoughts.” Adult Education Quarterly (December 20, 2010). Accessed March 30, 2019. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0741713610392768.
PPIM UIN Jakarta. Sikap Keberagamaan Guru Madrasah: Pentingnya Memperkuat Moderasi Islam. Policy Brief Series 1, no. 2, 2019. Accessed June 14, 2019. https://conveyindonesia.com/ publication/convey-report/.
Roeser, Robert W., and Stephen C. Peck. “An Education in Awareness: Self, Motivation, and Self-Regulated Learning in Contemplative.” Educational Psychologist 44, no. 2 (2009): 119–136. Accessed March 30, 2019. http://eds.b.ebscohost.com. libproxy.albany.edu/.
Shepard, Lorrie, Karen Hammerness, Linda Darling-Hammond, Frances Rust, Joan Baratz Snowden, Edmund Gordon, Cris Gutierrez, and Arturo Pacheco. “Assessment.” In Preparing Teachers for a Changing World: What Teachers Should Learn and Be Able to Do, edited by Linda Darling-Hammond and John Bransford, 275–326. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.
Suprapto. Ethno-Religious Segregation & the Dynamics of Hindu-Muslim Relation in Lombok Indonesia. Jakarta: Prenada Media, 2014.
Transparency International. “Corruption Perceptions Index 2018.” Www.Transparency.Org. Accessed March 30, 2019. https://www.transparency.org/cpi2018.
———. “Corruption Perceptions Index Table.” Last modified 2018. Accessed March 30, 2019. http://www.ti.or.id/en/index.php/ publication/2010/11/10/response-to-global-crises-must-prioritise-zero-tolerance-for-corruption.
Waters, Lea, Adam Brasky, Amanda Ridd, and Kelly Allen. “Contemplative Education: A Systematic, Evidence-Based Review of The Effect of Meditation Interventions in Schools.” Educational Psychology Review 27 (2015): 103–134. Accessed March 30, 2019. http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.libproxy. albany.edu/.
Zada, Khamami. “Orientasi Studi Islam di Indonesia.” UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta Official Website. Last modified May 24, 2008. Accessed March 30, 2019. http://www.uinjkt.ac.id/ index.php/section-blog/28-artikel/64-orientasi-studi-islam-di-indonesia.html.
Zajonc, Arthur. “Contemplative Pedagogy: A Quiet Revolution in Higher Education.” New Directions for Teaching and Learning 134 (Summer 2013): 83–94. Accessed March 30, 2019. http://eds.b.ebscohost.com.libproxy.albany.edu/.
Fulltext PDF downloaded: 43
Copyright (c) 2020 Ulumuna
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.